My Dhaka



Language

 

Bangla is the official language of Bangladesh. It is also spoken in West Bengal. Bangalees protected Bangla from the clutches of Pakistani oppressors in 1952 by preventing Urdu from being the state language of East Pakistan where a vast majority of people spoke in Bangla. Bangalees had to sacrifice lives for their mother tongue on 21st February, 1952. 21st February being declared International Mother Language Day by UNESCO, Bangla reached the peak of maturity.

Evolution

Bangla's direct ancestor is a form of Magadhi Prakrit or Middle Indo-Aryan which descended from Sanskrit or Old Indo-Aryan. Bangla evolved mainly from Sanskrit. Also Hindi, Urdu, Farsi, English--all contributed lots of words and terms to form this language.

The Origin of Bangla Alphabet

Bangla alphabet originated from Brahmi alphabet of the Asokan inscriptions. The Bangla script in its present printed form took shape in 1778 when printing types were first cast by Charles Wilkins. There still remained a few archaic forms and these were finally replaced in the middle of the nineteenth century.

The Oldest Records

For old Bangla the only record is Charjapad discovered from a palace in Nepal by Haraprasad Shastri. It is a collection of the oldest verses thought to be the oldest records of Bangla literature. The language of Charjapad is basically vernacular, but at the same time it is also something of a literary language.

Two Styles

Bangla at the present day has two literary styles. One is called "Sadhu Bhasha" and the other "Chalit Bhasa". The former is the traditional literary style based on Middle Bangla of the sixteenth century. The later is practically a creation of the present century, and is based on the cultivated form of the dialect and day-to-day talks. The difference between the two literary styles is not very sharp. The vocabulary is practically the same. The difference lies mainly in the forms of the pronoun and the verb. The Sadhu Bhasa has the old and heavier forms while the Chalit Bhasa uses the modern and lighter forms. The former shows a partiality for lexical words and for compound words of the Sanskrit type, and the latter prefers colloquial words, phrases and idioms. The Chalit Bhasa was first seriously taken up by Pramatha Chawdhury at the instance of Rabindranath Tagore during the early years of the first World War. Soon after Tagore practically discarded Sadhu Bhasa, and Chalit Bhasa is now generally favored by writers who have no particular fascination for the traditional literary style.

International Mother Language Day

The UNESCO has declared 21st February as The International Mother Language Day to be observed globally in recognition of the sacrifices of the Bangla language martyrs who laid their lives for establishing the rightful place of Bangla. The proclamation came in the form of a resolution unanimously adopted at the plenary of the UNESCO at its headquarters in Paris in November 1999. In its resolution the UNESCO said-' 21st February be proclaimed International Mother Language Day throughout the world to commemorate the martyrs who sacrificed their lives on this very day in 1952’.

It is a great tribute and glowing homage paid by the international community to the language martyrs of Bangladesh. The genesis of the historic Language Movement which ensued since September 1947 with the students in the vanguard backed by intellectuals, cultural activists and patriotic elements was the first spurt of Bangalee nationalistic upsurge culminating in the sanguinary events of February 21, 1952 and finally leading to the war of Liberation in 1971.

The UNESCO in its resolution said-the recognition was given bearing in mind that all moves to promote the dissemination of mother tongues will serve not only to encourage linguistic diversity and multilingual education but also to develop fuller awareness about linguistic and cultural traditions throughout the world and to inspire solidarity based on understanding, tolerance and dialogue.

Henceforth UN member countries around the world will observe 21st February as the International Mother Language Day. The historic 21st February has, thus, assumed new dimension. The sacrifices of Rafiq, Salam, Jabbar, Barkat and other martyrs as well as of those tortured and repressed by the then authoritarian government of Pakistan for championing the cause of their mother tongue have received now a glorious and new recognition by the November 1999 resolution of the UNESCO.

Countries who gave support to the proposal of Bangladesh Govt. for declaring the 21st February as The International Mother Language Day are Banin, Bhahama, Balaroush, Comoros, Chili, Dominic Republic, Egypt, Gambia, Honduras, Italy, Iran, Micronesia, Oman, The Philippines, Papua Newgini, Pakistan, Paraguay, Russian Federation, Sir Lanka, Saudi Arabia, Surinam, Slovakia, Vanuatu, Indonesia, India, Ivoricost , Lithuania, Malaysia

The following persons worked hard for bringing this international recognition to Bangla.

Rafiqul Islam, Abdus Salam, Albart Vinzon, Carman Cirstobal, Zason Morin, Susan Hozinos, Dr. Calvin Chow, Nasrin Islam, Rinata Martins Karuna Zoshi

 

 

Courtesy/Content/Copy -Bangla2000

 
Bangladesh is a independent country located in South Asia . The capital is Dhaka . Bengali is the official language. Due to political exclusion, ethnic and linguistic discrimination, and economic neglect by the West Pakistan , grew agitation led to the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, which succeeded after Pakistan surrendered to Freedom Fighters of Bangladesh, and her ally an Indian Brigade in Dhaka .

Bangladesh is a parliamentary democracy country with an elected parliament called the Jatiyo Sangshad (National Assembly). It is the ninth most populous country and among the most densely populated countries in the world. The country straddles the fertile Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta and is subject to annual monsoon floods and cyclones.

Bangladesh is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), the D-8 and BIMSTEC, and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations , the Organization of Islamic Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement.

Official Name: The People's
Government: Parliamentary form of government. The President is head of the state, while the government is headed by the Prime Minister.

Geographical Location: Latitude between 20°34' and 26°38' North. Longitude between 88°01' and 92°41' East.

Area: 143,998 sq km (55,598 sq miles)

land: 130,168 sq km water: 13,830 sq km

Boundaries: North - India (West Bengal and Meghalaya)

West - India (West Bengal)

East - India (Tripura and Assam, Myanmar)

South - Bay of Bengal

Capital City: Dhaka

Other Major Cities: Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulna, Sylhet, Barisal.

Division: 6 Nos.

City Corporation: 6 Nos.

Districts: 64 Nos.

Upzilla: 476 Nos.

Police Station: 574 nos.

Standard Time: GMT + 6 Hours

Climate Variations: Winter 11°C - 20°C (Dec-Feb), Summer 21°C - 34°C (April - June)

Average Rainfall: 203 CM

Humidity: Highest 99% (July), Lowest 36% (Dec & Jan)

Population: 164.4 million (2010)

Literacy Rate: 62.66%

Life expectancy : 67 years (men), 69 years (women)

Average Income: 1000 USD

Language: The national language is Bangla, which is spoken by 95%, 5% other dialects, English is widely spoken.

National Days: 21 February : International Mother Language Day and Language Martyrs Day

26 March : Independence Day

14 April : Bangla New Year's Day

01 May : May Day

07 November : National Solidarity Day

16 December : Victory Day

Principal Crops: Rice, Jute, Tea, Tobacco, Wheat, Sugarcane, etc.

Principal Rivers : Padma, Jamuna, Brahmaputra, Meghna, Karnaphuli, Shitalakhya, Teesta, Surma, etc.

Religion: Muslims 88.35 %, Hindus 10.5 %, Buddhists 0.6%, Christians 0.3% and others 0.3%

Principal Exports: Raw Jute and products, Tea, Leather and Leather goods, Garments, Frozen Shrimps, Ceramics, Vegetables, Software, Medicine, etc.

Principal Imports: Foods, Oil, Industrial Raw Materials, Machineries Parts, Chemical, etc.

Working Hours: The official working hours in Bangladesh is from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM on Saturday to Wednesday and 9:00 AM to 1:00 PM on Thursday. Friday is a weekly holiday. Banks transact their business from 9:00 AM to 3:00 PM on Saturday to Wednesday and from 9:00 AM to 12:00 noon on Thursday.

Principal Industries: Jute, Garments, Tea, Fertilizer, Cement, Leather and Leather goods, Fishing, etc.

Currency: Taka having a denomination of 500, 100, 20, 10, 5, 2 and 1.
Exchange Rate: US$ 1.00 = Tk. 70,

Monetary unit : 1 taka = 100 paisa

Best Tourist Season: October - March

Internet domain : .com.bd, .bd

International dialling code : +880       

People's Republic of Bangladesh
  • গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ
  • Gônoprojatontri Bangladesh
Flag Emblem

Anthem: 


Amar Shonar Bangla
My Golden Bangla

 

Bangladesh

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (Bengali: গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Gônoprojatontri Bangladesh) is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India and Myanmar and by the Bay of Bengal to the south. The capital (and largest city) is Dhaka, located in central Bangladesh. The official state language is Bengali. The name Bangladesh means "Country of Bengal" in the official Bengali language.
The borders of present-day Bangladesh were established with the
partition of Bengal during the reign and demise of the British India. Its map was chartered by Sir Cyril Radcliffe during the creation of Pakistan and India in 1947, when the region became East Pakistan, part of the newly formed nation of Pakistan. Due to political exclusion and economic exploitation by the politically dominant West Pakistan, popular agitation grew against West Pakistan and led to the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, after the Bangladeshi Declaration of Independence on 26 March 1971. With the direct and indirect help of India, 9 months of war come to an end on 16 December 1971 by the surrender of the Pakistan Army at Race Course, just after 10 days of direct action of the Indian Army. After independence, the new state endured an inept and corrupt administration, nationalising all aspects of life, that resulted in famines, poverty, widespread corruption, as well as political turmoil and unrest in the civil and military administration. The restoration of order in late 1975 brought back confidence and hope back into the lives of the citizens and the country.[citation needed] Since 1991 has been followed by relative calm and economic progress.

Bangladesh is a parliamentary democracy, with an elected parliament called the Jatiyo Sangshad. It is the ninth-most populous country and among the most densely populated countries in the world. Just like in the rest of South Asia the poverty rate prevails, although the United Nations has acclaimed Bangladesh for achieving tremendous progress in human development.[6][7] Geographically, the country straddles the fertile Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta and is subject to annual monsoon floods and cyclones.

The country is listed among the Next Eleven economies. It is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the D-8 and BIMSTEC, and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement. However, Bangladesh continues to face a number of major challenges, including widespread political and bureaucratic corruption, widespread poverty, and an increasing danger of hydrologic shocks brought on by ecological vulnerability to climate change.[8][9]